Darwin sisters Charles | Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution by natural selection

Darwin sisters Charles

Charles Darwin's family pedigree network


It is widely known that Charles Darwin was married to his first cousin Emma Wedgwood. Emma came with a substantial dowery, being the grand-daughter of Josiah Wedgwood, the founder of the Wedgwood pottery firm (as, indeed, was Darwin himself, via his mother). Darwin already had a substantial allowance from his own father (a successful physician, real estate speculator, investor, and money lender), and the combined incomes allowed him to live the life of a "gentleman of independent means". He thus conducted his scientific work unhindered by the practical concerns of the rest of us.


What is perhaps less well known is that Darwin was interested (and concerned) about the genetic effect on his children of his consanguineous marriage. He performed many experiments on inbreeding in plants, and demonstrated that the offspring of cross-fertilized plants were more vigorous and numerous than the offspring of self-fertilized plants. It occurred to him that the same thing might be true for animals, as well, including humans.

Furthermore, he thought that this might be an explanation for the unhealthy nature of his own children. Three of his ten children died young, and three more of them had long-term marriages that produced no offspring (implying infertility). These data stand out even within the Darwin-Wedgwood families, let alone outside it.

In birth order, the children were:
William Erasmus – married, no children
Anne Elizabeth – died young (tuberculosis)
Mary Eleanor – died young
Henrietta Emma – married, no children
George Howard – married, four children
Elizabeth – unmarried, no children (apparently had difficulties with words and pronunciation)
Francis – married twice, two children
Leonard – married twice, no children
Horace – married, three children
Charles Waring – died young

Part of the Darwin / Wedgwood pedigree is shown in the figure, which is taken from the 2010 paper by Tim M. Berra, Gonzalo Alvarez and Francisco C. Ceballos (Was the Darwin / Wedgwood dynasty adversely affected by consanguinity? BioScience 60: 376-383). Note that the family tree is drawn as a hybridization network (also called a "path diagram"), rather than a traditional family tree, an important point that I have previously emphasized for pedigrees (Family trees, pedigrees and hybridization networks).


The diagram shows only four of the people from Darwin's children's generation (including only one of his own children), but all four of these people (and their unshown siblings) are the offspring of first-cousin marriages. Indeed, Louisa Frances Wedgwood's parents were double first cousins (ie. they were cousins via both of their parents). of his eight children who survived to adulthood) — this is not a family tradition that should be encouraged. (You will note that Darwin's sister Caroline married Emma's brother Josiah III, thus literally keeping everything in the family.)

The inbreeding coefficient (the probability that at a given locus an individual receives two identical genes as a result of common ancestry) of Louisa Frances is 0.126, while that of the other three people is 0.063. Most of the other people in the Darwin / Wedgwood family have inbreeding coefficients of 0.000. Berra and his coauthors compared the child mortality with the inbreeding coefficients for four generations of the family, and concluded that there is a statistically significant relationship.

The data look like this for the 20 marriages in the final three generations:
Child mortality to 10 years
=0 >0
Inbreeding coefficient =0 11 5
1 3
Clearly, the second sample size is rather small, but the unconditional test of two independent proportions yields p=0.076. The relative risk is 2.4 (ie. the children of first-cousin marriages were >2 times more likely to die before 10 years of age than were the other children).




The Autobiography of Charles Darwin

by Frog_Barf

The autobiographical portion is quite short; most of the book (edited by Darwin's son Francis) is taken up by selections from Darwin's extensive correspondence.
Anyone interested in Darwin's seminal work on evolution, especially the immediate impact of Origin of Species at the time of its publication. could do much worse than to read the Autobiography. It's quite clear that Origin of Species caused a shit storm of abuse so intense, esp. from religious leaders, that one can't help but wonder if they viewed it as threatening their livelihoods.
There are three other principal characters in the drama: Charles Lyell, the great geologist; J

Unin4m8on

by vizion

The Uniformatarian philosophy of Sir Charles Lyell in geology and Sir Charles Darwin in biological evolution gave upper-class of Victorian England a secularized version of Judeo-Christian tradition. As an intellectual thesis Darwinism was dead by the end of the 20th century. The most advanced speculation was occurring in Germany where modern biology was born. Darwinism survived because its political associations. In the form of Social Darwinism it had a natural affinity with the Nationalism in. . .

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FAQ

Oli
Can you answer Charles Darwin Trivia Quiz?

Do you know the answer to any of these questions?????
1) Charles’s Wife, Emma, was a keen and accomplished pianist. From whom did she once receive piano lessons?
A) Fryderyk Chopin
B) Hector Berlioz
C) Franz Liszt

2) When Charles and Emma were first married, they lived in a house in Gower Street, London (now the site of a UCL biology building). What was their nickname for the house?
A) Maer Mansions
B) Macaw Cottage
C) The Boxrooms

3) Which of the following people was NOT left handed?
A) Erasmus Darwin (Charles's…

1. A (from Chopin in Paris)
B - Finches
's_finches
5. C - The Princess and the Goblin
A - Walter Crick
"Crick replied with not only the answers, but also the beetle and the shell. Both arrived alive, so Darwin put the "wretched" insect in a bottle with chopped ..."
10. B - Australia
"Charles Darwin: The Voyage of the Beagle: Chapter XIX: Australia. ... and he who thinks with me will never wish to walk again in so uninviting a country"
15. Joseph Parslow
" Darwin's family home. Down House…

Castigator
Why did people dislike the Charles Darwin theory?

Were humans disgusted to know that they came from monkeys. Did humans have a superiority complex that prevented from accepting Darwin's theory?
that prevented them*

When you disturb someone's world view when they are certain that their race or group is superior in some way to every other, you have the recipe for rebellion. Then you have the dummy who asks why monkeys aren't turning into people now when if you read the book, you see that it happened over a geological timespan, which os a little hard to observe, and only in cases where isolation occurred requiring speciation and preventing interbreeding.

Finally, some people just will not believe that humans were caused, not created, because they have a book written three or four…

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