Charles Lyell Darwin | Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution by natural selection

Charles Lyell Darwin

gradual change by erosion

Discrete rock layers containing different fossils reinforced the idea that the Earth's history could be divided into ages marked by catastrophic change. However, gradual change, like that caused by erosion, has also played an important role in the Earth's history.

Thanks to the pioneering work of researchers such as William Smith, geologists in the early 1800s were able to swiftly organize rock formations into a single colossal record of Earth's history. Many geologists saw in this record a stormy epic, one in which our planet had been convulsed repeatedly by abrupt changes. Mountains were built in catastrophic instants, and in the process whole groups of animals became extinct and were replaced by new species. Giant tropical plants, for example, left their fossils in northern Europe during the Carboniferous Period, never to be seen there again. Earth's history might not fit a strict Biblical narrative any longer, but these revolutions seemed to be a sign that it did have a direction. From its formation, catastrophes altered the planet’s surface step by step leading towards the present Earth.Charles Lyell row through time.

Catastrophism
Even before this geological evidence had emerged, some naturalists had already claimed that Earth's history had a direction. Buffon, and later the physicist, both claimed that the Earth had begun as a hot ball of molten rock and had been cooling through time. Fourier argued that the tropical plants of Europe must have lived during those warmer times. Some geologists suggested that the cooling of the planet occasionally triggered violent, sudden uplifts of mountains and volcanic eruptions.

The rock cycle "Catastrophism, " as this school of thought came to be known, was attacked in 1830 by a British lawyer-turned-geologist named Charles Lyell (1797-1875). Lyell started his career studying under the catastrophist at Oxford. But Lyell became disenchanted with Buckland when Buckland tried to link catastrophism to the Bible, looking for evidence that the most recent catastrophe had actually been Noah's flood. Lyell wanted to find a way to make geology a true science of its own, built on observation and not susceptible to wild speculations or dependent on the supernatural.
The ideas of Hutton and Lyell led to an understanding of "the rock cycle" as we know it today.
Gradual change
For inspiration, Lyell turned to the fifty-year-old ideas of a Scottish farmer named . In the 1790s, Hutton had argued that the Earth was transformed not by unimaginable catastrophes but by imperceptibly slow changes, many of which we can see around us today. Rain erodes mountains, while molten rock pushes up to create new ones.Valley formed by erosion e eroded sediments form into layers of rock, which can later be lifted above sea level, tilted by the force of the uprising rock, and eroded away again. These changes are tiny, but with enough time they could produce vast changes. Hutton therefore argued that the Earth was vastly old — a sort of perpetual-motion machine passing through regular cycles of destruction and rebuilding that made the planet suitable for mankind.
Lyell found evidence that valleys were formed through the slow process of erosion, not by catastrophic floods.

Lyell traveled through Europe to find more evidence that gradual changes, the same we can see happening today, had produced the features of the Earth's surface. He found evidence for many rises and falls of sea level, and of giant volcanoes built on top of far older rocks. Processes such as earthquakes and eruptions, which had been witnessed by humans, were enough to produce mountain ranges. Valleys were not the work of giant floods but the slow grinding force of wind and water.




The Autobiography of Charles Darwin

by Frog_Barf

The autobiographical portion is quite short; most of the book (edited by Darwin's son Francis) is taken up by selections from Darwin's extensive correspondence.
Anyone interested in Darwin's seminal work on evolution, especially the immediate impact of Origin of Species at the time of its publication. could do much worse than to read the Autobiography. It's quite clear that Origin of Species caused a shit storm of abuse so intense, esp. from religious leaders, that one can't help but wonder if they viewed it as threatening their livelihoods.
There are three other principal characters in the drama: Charles Lyell, the great geologist; J

Unin4m8on

by vizion

The Uniformatarian philosophy of Sir Charles Lyell in geology and Sir Charles Darwin in biological evolution gave upper-class of Victorian England a secularized version of Judeo-Christian tradition. As an intellectual thesis Darwinism was dead by the end of the 20th century. The most advanced speculation was occurring in Germany where modern biology was born. Darwinism survived because its political associations. In the form of Social Darwinism it had a natural affinity with the Nationalism in. . .

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Lyell And Darwin, Geologists: Studies In The Earth Sciences In The Age Of Reform (Variorum Collected Studies Series)
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FAQ

Oli
Can you answer Charles Darwin Trivia Quiz?

Do you know the answer to any of these questions?????
1) Charles’s Wife, Emma, was a keen and accomplished pianist. From whom did she once receive piano lessons?
A) Fryderyk Chopin
B) Hector Berlioz
C) Franz Liszt

2) When Charles and Emma were first married, they lived in a house in Gower Street, London (now the site of a UCL biology building). What was their nickname for the house?
A) Maer Mansions
B) Macaw Cottage
C) The Boxrooms

3) Which of the following people was NOT left handed?
A) Erasmus Darwin (Charles's…

1. A (from Chopin in Paris)
B - Finches
's_finches
5. C - The Princess and the Goblin
A - Walter Crick
"Crick replied with not only the answers, but also the beetle and the shell. Both arrived alive, so Darwin put the "wretched" insect in a bottle with chopped ..."
10. B - Australia
"Charles Darwin: The Voyage of the Beagle: Chapter XIX: Australia. ... and he who thinks with me will never wish to walk again in so uninviting a country"
15. Joseph Parslow
" Darwin's family home. Down House…

Castigator
Why did people dislike the Charles Darwin theory?

Were humans disgusted to know that they came from monkeys. Did humans have a superiority complex that prevented from accepting Darwin's theory?
that prevented them*

When you disturb someone's world view when they are certain that their race or group is superior in some way to every other, you have the recipe for rebellion. Then you have the dummy who asks why monkeys aren't turning into people now when if you read the book, you see that it happened over a geological timespan, which os a little hard to observe, and only in cases where isolation occurred requiring speciation and preventing interbreeding.

Finally, some people just will not believe that humans were caused, not created, because they have a book written three or four…

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